The United States has a long history of welcoming refugees and providing safe haven to those fleeing conflict and persecution. However, US refugee policy has also seen various ups and downs over the decades depending on political priorities and security concerns. Let’s take a deeper look at how the US refugee system works.
Table of ContentsToggle
Who Qualifies as a Refugee?
Under US law, a refugee is defined as someone who is outside their country and unable or unwilling to return due to a well-founded fear of persecution based on race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group. This definition aligns with international standards set by the 1951 Refugee Convention.
The Application and Approval Process
The application and approval process involves multiple government agencies:
- Refugees are initially vetted overseas by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
- They are then referred to the United States for resettlement consideration through the US Refugee Admissions Program.
- The Department of State and Department of Homeland Security conduct intensive security screenings which can take over a year to complete.
- Interviewers from US Citizenship and Immigration Services determine if the fear of persecution is credible.
- Refugees undergo medical screenings and are matched with a resettlement agency.
Only about 30% of refugee applicants globally are ultimately approved for resettlement to the US each year.
The Refugee Resettlement Program
Private nonprofit organizations contract with the State Department to provide initial housing, clothing, employment services, English classes and cultural orientation for newly arrived refugees. Funding comes from both government grants and private donations.
The goal is employment self-sufficiency within 6 months so refugees can pay back initial loans for their travel to America. Resettlement agencies help with long-term integration through community resources and applying for permanent residency.
Recent Policy Changes and Quotas
The maximum number of refugees allowed annually has fluctuated, from over 200,000 in 1980 to just 15,000 in 2022 under the Trump administration versus 125,000 proposed by Biden. The politically appointed President determines the cap each fiscal year.
Additional policy shifts include travel bans, limiting arrivals from certain primarily Muslim countries, and tighter security screenings in the name of national security. Ongoing debates reflect both humanitarian and security concerns regarding US refugee policy going forward.